# Ferdinand von Lindemann

Ferdinand von Lindemann | |
---|---|

Born | |

Died | 6 March 1939 | (aged 86)

Nationality | German |

Alma mater | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg |

Known for | Proving π to be a transcendental number Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Mathematics |

Institutions | University of Munich, University of Freiburg |

Doctoral advisor | C. Felix Klein^{[1]} |

Doctoral students |

**Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann** (12 April 1852 – 6 March 1939) was a German mathematician, noted for his proof, published in 1882, that π (pi) is a transcendental number, meaning it is not a root of any polynomial with rational coefficients.

## Life and education[edit]

Lindemann was born in Hanover, the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover. His father, Ferdinand Lindemann, taught modern languages at a Gymnasium in Hanover. His mother, Emilie Crusius, was the daughter of the Gymnasium's headmaster. The family later moved to Schwerin, where young Ferdinand attended school.

He studied mathematics at Göttingen, Erlangen, and Munich. At Erlangen he received a doctorate, supervised by Felix Klein,^{[1]} on non-Euclidean geometry. Lindemann subsequently taught in Würzburg and at the University of Freiburg. During his time in Freiburg, Lindemann devised his proof that π is a transcendental number (see Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem). After his time in Freiburg, Lindemann transferred to the University of Königsberg. While a professor in Königsberg, Lindemann acted as supervisor for the doctoral theses of the mathematicians David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski, and Arnold Sommerfeld.^{[2]}

## Transcendence proof[edit]

In 1882, Lindemann published the result for which he is best known, the transcendence of π. His methods were similar to those used nine years earlier by Charles Hermite to show that *e*, the base of natural logarithms, is transcendental. Before the publication of Lindemann's proof, it was known that π was irrational, as Johann Heinrich Lambert proved π was irrational in the 1760s.

## References[edit]

- ^
^{a}^{b}Ferdinand von Lindemann at the Mathematics Genealogy Project **^**"Ferdinand von Lindemann - Biography".*Maths History*. Retrieved 2022-08-06.

## External links[edit]

- Media related to Ferdinand von Lindemann at Wikimedia Commons
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Ferdinand von Lindemann",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive*, University of St Andrews - Ferdinand von Lindemann at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Lindemann, F. "Über die Zahl π",
*Mathematische Annalen*20 (1882): pp. 213–225.

- 1852 births
- 1939 deaths
- 19th-century German mathematicians
- 20th-century German mathematicians
- Squaring the circle
- German number theorists
- Scientists from Hanover
- People from the Kingdom of Hanover
- University of Göttingen alumni
- University of Erlangen-Nuremberg alumni
- Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich alumni
- Academic staff of the University of Königsberg