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In Spanish grammar, voseo (Spanish pronunciation: [boˈseo]) is the use of vos as a second-person singular pronoun, along with its associated verbal forms, in certain regions where the language is spoken. In those regions it replaces tuteo, i.e. the use of the pronoun and its verbal forms. Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with as the subject pronoun (verbal voseo).[1]

In all regions with voseo, the corresponding unstressed object pronoun is te and the corresponding possessive is tu/tuyo.[2]

Vos is used extensively as the second-person singular in Rioplatense Spanish (Argentina and Uruguay), Chilean Spanish, Eastern Bolivia, Paraguayan Spanish, and much of Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica); in Mexico, in the southern regions of Chiapas and parts of Oaxaca. It is rarely used, if at all, in places such as Cuba and Puerto Rico. There is a rural community within the Dominican Republic using vos.[citation needed]

Vos had been, traditionally, used in Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Paraguay, the Philippines and Uruguay, even in formal writing. In the dialect of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (known as 'Rioplatense'), the usage of vos is prevalent, even in mainstream film, media and music. In Argentina, particularly from the second half of the 20th century, it has become very common to see billboards and other advertising campaigns using voseo.[3][4]

Vos is present in some regions of other countries, for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State, Venezuela (see Venezuelan Spanish), the Azuero peninsula of Panama, in a few departments in Colombia,[5] and in parts of Ecuador (Sierra down to Esmeraldas). In Peru, voseo is present in certain Andean regions and Cajamarca, but the younger generations have ceased to use it. It is also present in Judaeo-Spanish, spoken by Sephardic Jews, where it is the archaic plural form that vosotros replaced.

Voseo is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language, and its precise usage varies across different regions.[6] Nevertheless, in recent years, it has become more commonly accepted across the Hispanophone world as a valid part of regional dialects.


Classical Latin, and the Vulgar Latin from which Romance languages such as Spanish are descended, had only two-second-person pronouns – the singular tu and the plural vos. Starting in the early Middle Ages, however, languages such as French and Spanish began to attach honorary significance to these pronouns beyond literal number. Plural pronouns were often used to refer to a person of respect to aggrandize them. Vos, the second-person plural inherited from Latin, came to be used in this manner.

Already by the late 18th century, however, vos itself was restricted to politeness among one's familiar friends. The following extract from a textbook is illustrative of usage at the time:

We seldom make use in Spanish of the second Person Singular or Plural, but when through a great familiarity among friends, or speaking to God, or a wife and husband to themselves, or a father and mother to their children, or to servants.


O Dios, sois vos mi Padre verdadéro, O God, thou art my true Father; Tú eres un buen amígo, Thou art a good friend.

— Raymundo del Pueyo, A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language[7]

The standard formal way to address a person one was not on familiar terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced ("your grace", originally abbreviated as v.m.) in the singular and vuestras mercedes in the plural. Because of the literal meaning of these forms, they were accompanied by the corresponding third-person verb forms. Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia ("your excellence", contracted phonetically to ussencia) and vuestra señoría ("your lordship/ladyship", contracted to ussía). Today, both vos and are considered to be informal pronouns, with vos being somewhat synonymous with in regions where both are used. This was the situation when the Spanish language was brought to the Río de la Plata area (around Buenos Aires and Montevideo) and to Chile.

In time, vos lost currency in Spain but survived in a number of areas in Spanish-speaking America: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia (east), Uruguay, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and some smaller areas; it is not found, or found only in internally remote areas (such as Chiapas) in the countries historically best connected with Spain: Mexico, Panama, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Equatorial Guinea. Vuestra merced evolved into usted: vuestra merced > usarced > usted; in fact, usted is still abbreviated as either Vd or Ud). Note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros (meaning literally 'ye/you others'), while the term nosotros comes from nos otros ("we/us others").

In the first half of the 19th century, the use of vos was as prevalent in Chile as it was in Argentina. The current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system. The campaign was initiated by Andrés Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education.[8]


Vos in relation to other forms of [edit]

The independent disjunctive pronoun vos also replaces ti, from the tuteo set of forms. That is, vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions. Therefore, para vos ("for you") corresponds to the tuteo form para ti, etc.

The preposition-pronoun combination con vos ("with you") is used for the tuteo form contigo.
The direct and indirect object form te is used in both voseo and tuteo.[2]

Nominative Oblique Reflexive
subject direct object indirect object prepositional object fused with con direct/indirect object prepositional object fused with con
vos te te vos con vos te vos con vos
usted lo/la le usted con usted se consigo
te te ti contigo te ti contigo
vosotros os os vosotros con vosotros os vosotros con vosotros

The possessive pronouns of vos also coincide with <tu(s), tuyo(s), tuya(s)> rather than with vosotros <vuestro(s), vuestra(s)>.[2]

Voseo in Chavacano[edit]

Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole spoken in the Philippines, employs voseo,[9][10] while the standard Spanish spoken in the country does not.[11] The Chavacano language below in comparison of other Chavacano dialects and level of formality with Voseo in both subject and possessive pronouns. Note the mixed and co-existing usages of vos, tú, usted, and vosotros.

  Zamboangueño Caviteño Bahra Davaoeño (Castellano Abakay)
2nd person singular vos/vo/evo/evos (common/informal)
usted (formal)
vo/bo (common)
tu (familiar)
usté (formal)
vo/bo (common/informal)
usté (formal)
usted (formal)

vos (informal)

2nd person plural kamó (common)
vosotros (familiar)
ustedes (formal)


  Zamboangueño Davaoeño (Castellano Abakay)
2nd person singular de vos (common)
de tu (familiar)
tuyo (familiar)
de tuyo/di tuyo (familiar)
de usted (formal)
de tu
2nd person plural de iño/di inyo (common)
de vosotros (familiar)
de ustedes (formal)
(de) vos

Conjugation with vos[edit]

All modern voseo conjugations derive from Old Spanish second person plural -ades, -edes, -ides, and -odes (as in sodes, 'you are').[12] The 14th and 15th centuries saw an evolution of these conjugations, with -ades originally giving -áis, -edes giving -és (or -ís),[12][13] -ides giving -ís,[14] and -odes giving -óis.[12] Soon analogous forms -ás and -éis appeared.[12] Hence the variety of forms the contemporary American voseo adopts, some varieties featuring a generalized monophthong (most of them), some a generalized diphthong (e.g. Venezuela), and some combining monophthongs and diphthongs, depending on the conjugation (e.g. Chile). In the most general, monophthongized, conjugation paradigm, a difference between voseo forms and respective tuteo forms is visible exclusively in the present indicative, imperative and subjunctive, and, most of the time, in the preterite.[13] Below is a comparison table of the conjugation of several verbs for and for vos, and next to them the one for vosotros, the informal second person plural currently used orally only in Spain; in oratory or legal language (highly formal forms of Spanish) it is used outside of Spain. Verb forms that agree with vos are stressed on the last syllable, causing the loss of the stem diphthong in those verbs, such as poder and venir, which are stem-changing.

2. Sg.
Southeastern Cuba,
Northeastern Colombia1, 2,
and Panama4
2. Pl.
in Spain
Vosotros – בֿוֹזוֹטרוֹז general 2.Pl
And Vos – בֿוֹז formal 2.Sg
2. Pl
ser eres sos erís/sois sois sosh סוֹש /soʃ/ son you are
comer comes comés comís coméis komesh קוֹמֵיש /koˈmeʃ/ comen you eat
poder puedes podés podís podéis podesh פּוֹדֵיש /poˈdeʃ/ pueden you can/may
hablar hablas hablás hablái habláis favlash פֿאבֿלאשׁ /faˈvlaʃ/ hablan you speak
recordar recuerdas recordás recordái recordáis recordash רֵיקוֹרדאשׁ /rekorˈdaʃ/ recuerdan you remember
vivir vives vivís bivish בִּיבִֿיש /biˈviʃ/ viven you live
venir vienes venís venish בֵֿינִיש /veˈniʃ/ vienen you come
1 Because of the general aspiration of syllable-final [s], the -s of this ending is usually heard as [h] or not pronounced.
2 In Colombia, the rest of the country that uses vos follows the General Conjugation.
3 In the state of Zulia
4 in Azuero

General conjugation is the one that is most widely accepted and used in various countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, as well as Central American countries.[2]

Some Uruguayan speakers combine the pronoun with the vos conjugation (for example, tú sabés).[2] Conversely, speakers in some other places where both and vos are used combine vos with the conjugation (for example, vos sabes).[2] This is a frequent occurrence in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero.

The verb forms employed with vos are also different in Chilean Spanish: Chileans use -ái and soi 'you are' instead of -áis or -ás and sois or sos. Chileans never pronounce these conjugations with a final -s. The forms erís for 'you are', and habís and hai for 'you have' are also found in Chilean Spanish.[15]

In the case of the ending -ís (such as in comís, podís, vivís, erís, venís), the final -s is pronounced like any other final /s/ in Chilean Spanish. It is most often pronounced as an aspiration similar to the 'h' sound in English. It can also be pronounced as a fricative [s], or be dropped completely. Its variable pronunciation is a phonological rather than a morphological phenomenon.[15]

Venezuelan Maracucho Spanish is notable in that they preserve the diphthongized plural verb forms in all tenses, as still used with vosotros in Spain.[2] Chilean Spanish also notably uses the diphthong -ái.

In Ladino, the -áis, -éis, -ís, & -ois endings are pronounced /aʃ/, /eʃ/, /iʃ/, & /oʃ/.

In Chile, it is much more usual to use + vos verb conjugation ( sabís). The use of pronominal vos (vos sabís) is reserved for very informal situations and may even be considered vulgar in some cases.[2]

Present indicative[edit]

  1. General conjugation: the final -r of the infinitive is replaced by -s; in writing, an acute accent is added to the last vowel (i.e. the one preceding the final -s) to indicate stress position.
  2. Chilean:
    1. the -ar ending of the infinitive is replaced by -ái
    2. both -er and -ir are replaced by -ís, which sounds more like -íh.
  3. Venezuelan (Zulian): practically the same ending as modern Spanish vosotros, yet with the final -s being aspirated so that: -áis, -éis, -ís sound like -áih, -éih, -íh (phonetically resembling Chilean).
Infinitive Present Indicative
General Venezuelan1 Chilean
oír oís
venir venís
decir decís
dormir dormís
sentir sentís
escribir escribís
concluir concluís
ir vas vais vai(s)
pensar pensás pensáis pensái
contar contás contáis contái
jugar jugás jugáis jugái
errar errás erráis errái
poder podés podéis podís
querer querés queréis querís
mover movés movéis movís
saber sabés sabéis sabís
ser sos sois soi/erís
haber has habéis habís/hai
1 in Zulia; identical ending to modern vosotros

Unlike , which has many irregular forms, the only voseo verbs that are conjugated irregularly in the indicative present are ser, ir and haber. However, haber is seldom used in the indicative present, since there is a strong tendency to use preterite instead of present perfect.

Affirmative imperative[edit]

Vos also differs in its affirmative imperative conjugation from both and vosotros. Specifically, the vos imperative is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive, but keeping the stress on the last syllable.[12] The only verb that is irregular in this regard is ir; its vos imperative is not usually used, with andá (the vos imperative of andar, which is denoted by *) being generally used instead; except for the Argentine province of Tucumán, where the imperative ite is used. For most regular verbs ending in -ir, the vos imperatives use the same conjugations as the yo form in the preterite; almost all verbs that are irregular in the preterite (which are denoted by ) retain the regular vos imperative forms.

Verb Meaning Vos Vosotros (written)
ser to be sed
estar to be está/estate está/estate estad
ir to go ve i/ite[16][17] *(andá/andate) id
hablar to speak habla hablá hablad
callar to become silent calla callá callad
soltar to release/let go suelta soltá soltad
comer to eat come comé comed
mover to move mueve mové moved
venir to come ven vení venid
poner to put pon poné poned
salir to leave sal salí salid
tener to have ten tené tened
decir to say di decí decid
pedir to ask/order pide pedí pedid

Again, the conjugation of has far more irregularities, whereas vos has only one irregular verb in the affirmative imperative.

In Chile, the general vos conjugation is not used in the affirmative imperative.


In most places where voseo is used, it is applied also in the subjunctive. In the Río de la Plata region, both the -conjugation and the voseo conjugation are found, the tú-form being more common. In this variety, some studies have shown a pragmatic difference between the -form and the vos-form, such that the vos form carries information about the speaker's belief state, and can be stigmatized.[18][19] For example, in Central America the subjunctive and negative command form is no mintás, and in Chile it is no mintái; however, in Río de la Plata both no mientas and no mintás are found. Real Academia Española models its voseo conjugation tables on the most frequent, unstigmatized Río de la Plata usage and therefore omits the subjunctive voseo.[20]

Central America1
Río de la Plata region Chile Venezuela (Zulia)
Panama (Azuero)
No quiero que mintás. No quiero que mientas. No quiero que mintái. No quiero que mintáis. I don't want you to lie.
No temás. No temas. No temái. No temáis. Do not fear.
Que durmás bien Que duermas bien. Que durmái bien. Que durmáis bien. Sleep well.
No te preocupés. No te preocupes. No te preocupís. No te preocupéis. Don't worry.
1including areas in Colombia with voseo, e.g. the Paisa region.

Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo[edit]

  • 'Verbal voseo' refers to the use of the verb conjugation of vos regardless of which pronoun is used.[2]
Verbal voseo with a pronoun other than vos is widespread in Chile, in which case one would use the pronoun and the verb conjugation of vos at the same time. E.g.: tú venís, tú escribís, tú podís, tú sabís, tú vai, tú estái.
There are some partially rare cases of a similar sort of verbal voseo in Uruguay where one would say for example tú podés or tú sabés.
  • 'Pronominal voseo' is the use of the pronoun vos regardless of verb conjugation.[2]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Distribution of voseo:[2]
  primarily spoken + written
  primarily spoken
  spoken, alternating with tuteo

Countries where voseo is predominant[edit]

Voseo used on a billboard in Buenos Aires, Argentina: ¿Querés cambiar? Vení a Claro ("Do you want to change? Come to Claro."). In tuteo, it would have been ¿Quieres cambiar? Ven a Claro.
Voseo used on a billboard in El Salvador: ¡Pedí aquí tu fría! ("Order your cold one here!"). The tuteo equivalent would have been ¡Pide aquí tu fría!
Voseo used on signage inside a shopping mall in Tegucigalpa, Honduras: En City sí encontrás de todo para lucir como te gusta ("At City you find everything to look how you like"). The tuteo equivalent would have been En City sí encuentras de todo para lucir como te gusta

In South America:

  1. Argentina – both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is not preferred.[2]
  2. Paraguay – both pronominal and verbal voseo,[2] the pronoun is uncommon in most of the country.
  3. Uruguay – dual-usage of both pronominal and verbal voseo and a combination of the pronoun + verb conjugated in the vos form,[2] except near the Brazilian border, where only pronominal and verbal tuteo is common.

In Central America:

  1. Guatemala – three-tiered system is used to indicate the degree of respect or familiarity: usted, , vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; corresponds to an intermediate level of familiarity, but not deep trust; vos is the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity. Pronominal is frequent with verbal voseo.[2]
  2. Honduras – three-tiered system is used to indicate the degree of respect or familiarity: usted, , vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; corresponds to an intermediate level of familiarity, but not deep trust; vos is the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity.[2]
  3. Nicaragua – both pronominal and verbal voseo throughout all social classes; is mostly used in writing.[2]
  4. Costa Ricavoseo has historically been used, back in the 2000s it was losing ground to ustedeo and tuteo, especially among younger speakers.[21] Vos is now primarily used orally with friends and family in Cartago, Guanacaste province, the San José metropolitan area and near the Nicaraguan border and in advertising signage. Usted is the primary form in other areas and with strangers. Tuteo is rarely used, but when it is used in speech by a Costa Rican, it is commonly considered fake and effeminate.[22]
  5. El Salvador – three-tiered system is used to indicate the degree of respect or familiarity: usted, , vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; corresponds to an intermediate level of familiarity, but not deep trust; vos is the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity and also lack of respect.[23]

Countries where voseo is extensive, but not predominant[edit]

In South America:

  1. Bolivia – in the Lowlands of Eastern Bolivia—with mestizo, Criollo and German descendants majority—(Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, Tarija and the Lowlands of La Paz) voseo is used universally; while in the Highlands of Western Bolivia—with indigenous peoples majority—(highlands of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca and Cochabamba) is predominant, but there is still a strong use of voseo, especially in verb forms.
  2. Chile – verbal voseo and pronominal is used in informal situations, whereas pronominal voseo is reserved only for very intimate situations or to offend someone. In every other situation and in writing, the normal or usted pronouns are used.

Countries where voseo occurs in some areas[edit]

In the following countries, voseo is used only in certain areas:

Countries where voseo is virtually absent[edit]

In the following countries, voseo has disappeared completely among the native population:

Synchronic analysis of Chilean and River Plate verbal voseo[edit]

The traditional assumption that Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are derived from those corresponding to vosotros has been challenged as synchronically inadequate in a 2014 article,[15] on the grounds that it requires at least six different rules, including three monophthongization processes that completely lack phonological motivation. Alternatively, the article argues that the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are synchronically derived from underlying representations that coincide with those corresponding to the non-honorific second person singular . First, both Chilean and River Plate voseo has an accentuation rule which assigns stress to the syllable following the verb's root, or its infinitive in the case of the future and conditional conjugations. This alone derives all the River Plate voseo verb conjugations, in all tenses. Chilean verb forms also undergo rules of semi-vocalization, vowel raising, and aspiration. In semi-vocalization, /s/ becomes the semivowel /j/ when after /a, o/; thus, -ás becomes -ái, and sos becomes soi 'you are'. The vowel raising rule turns stressed /e/ into /i/, so bebés becomes bebís. Aspiration, a normal part of Chilean, and River Plate, Spanish phonology, means that syllable or word-final /s/ becomes pronounced like an [h].[15]

The proposed theory requires the use of only one special rule in the case of Chilean voseo. This rule plus other rules that are independently justified in the language make it possible to synchronically derive all the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms in a straightforward manner. The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verbal forms of Chilean voseo like the future indicative (e.g. bailaríh or bailarái 'you will dance'), the present indicative forms of haber (habíh and hai 'you have'), and the present indicative of ser (soi, eríh and eréi 'you are'), without resorting to any ad hoc rules. All these different verb forms would come from different underlying representations. The future forms bailarái and bailaríh come from underlying /bailaˈɾas/ and /bailaˈɾes/, the latter related to the historical future form -és, which was documented in Chile in the 17th century. Habíh and hai come from /ˈabes/ and /as/, while soi and eríh come from /sos/ and /ˈeɾes/. The form erei also comes from /ˈeɾes/, with additional semi-vocalization. The theoretical framework of the article is that of classic generative phonology.[15]


In some countries, the pronoun vos is used with family and friends (T-form), like in other varieties of Spanish, and contrasts with the respectful usted (V-form used with third person) which is used with strangers, elderly, and people of higher socioeconomic status; appropriate usage varies by dialect. In Central America, vos can be used among those considered equals, while usted maintains its respectful usage. In Ladino, the pronoun usted is completely absent, so the use of vos with strangers and elders is the standard.

Voseo was long considered a backward or uneducated usage by prescriptivist grammarians. Many Central American intellectuals, themselves from voseante nations, have condemned the usage of vos in the past.[23] With the changing mentalities in the Hispanic world, and with the development of descriptive as opposed to prescriptive linguistics, it has become simply a local variant of Spanish. In some places it has become symbolically important and is pointed to with pride as a local defining characteristic.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miranda, Stewart (1999). The Spanish Language Today. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 0-415-14258-X.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Real Academia Española. "voseo | Diccionario panhispánico de dudas". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  3. ^ Borrini, Alberto (24 February 1998). "Publicidad & Marketing. ¿Por qué usan el tuteo los avisos?". La Nación. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  4. ^ Gassó, María José. "El voseo rioplatense en la clase de español" (PDF). Instituto Cervantes Belo Horizonte. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  5. ^ Díaz Collazos, Ana María. Desarrollo sociolingüístico del voseo en la región andina de Colombia (1555–1976).
  6. ^ Bruquetas, Francisco (2015). Advanced Spanish. Bruquetas Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 9780578104355.
  7. ^ Del Pueyo, Raymundo (1792). A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language. London: F. Wingrave. 159.
  8. ^ Luizete Guimarães Barros. 1990. Lengua y nación en la Gramática de Bello. Anuario brasileño de estudios hispánicos.
  9. ^ a b De Castro, Gefilloyd L. (2018). "The role of second person pronouns in expressing social behavior: An undocumented case in Zamboanga Chavacano". Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 49: 26–40. ISSN 0048-3796. Retrieved April 4, 2023 – via ResearchGate.
  10. ^ a b Herrera, Jerome (December 17, 2021). "Differences and Similarities Among the Chavacano Languages in the Philippines". La Jornada Filipina. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  11. ^ a b Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas: historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos [The Spanish Language in the Philippines: History, Current Situation, Chavacano, Anthology of Texts]. Madrid: Spanish National Research Council. p. 117. ISBN 978-84-00-08635-0.
  12. ^ a b c d e (in Spanish) Lapesa Melgar, Rafael. 1970. "Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los orígenes del voseo", in: Carlos H. Magis (ed.), Actas del III Congreso de la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas (México, D.F., 26–31 Aug 1968). México: Colegio de México, 519–531.
  13. ^ a b (in Spanish) García de Diego, Vicente. [1951] 1981. Gramática histórica española. (3rd edition; 1st edition 1951, 2nd edition 1961, 3rd edition 1970, 1st reprint 1981.) Madrid: Gredos, 227–229.
  14. ^ -ides did not produce -íes because -iés and íes were already in use as Imperfect forms, cf. García de Diego ([1951] 1981: 228) and Lapesa (1970: 526).
  15. ^ a b c d e Baquero Velásquez, Julia M.; Westphal Montt, Germán F. (16 July 2014). "Un análisis sincrónico del voseo verbal chileno y rioplatense" (PDF). Forma y Función (in Spanish). 27 (2): 11–40. doi:10.15446/fyf.v27n2.47558.
  16. ^ "ir, irse | Diccionario panhispánico de dudas | RAE - ASALE".
  17. ^ "voseo | Diccionario panhispánico de dudas | RAE - ASALE".
  18. ^ Johnson, Mary (2016). "Epistemicity in voseo and tuteo negative commands in Argentinian Spanish". Journal of Pragmatics. 97: 37–54. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2016.02.003.
  19. ^ Moyna, María Irene & Rivera-Mills, Susana (2016). Forms of Address in Spanish across the Americas. John Benjamins. pp. 127–148. ISBN 9789027258090.
  20. ^ See for example in Real Academia Española Dictionary, mentir or preocupar, where mentís and preocupás are present, but mintás and preocupés are missing.
  21. ^ Maria Irene Moyna, Susana Rivera-Mills (2016). Forms of Address in the Spanish of the Americas. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 243–263. ISBN 978-90-272-6700-9.
  22. ^ Solano Rojas, Yamileth (1995). "Las formas pronominales: Vos – tu – usted en Costa Rica, análisis de una muestra". Revista Pensamiento Actual (in Spanish). 1 (1): 42–57.
  23. ^ a b c John M. Lipski. "El español que se habla en El Salvador y su importancia para la dialectología hispanoamericana" (PDF) (in Spanish). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ Davis, Jack Emory (1971). "The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940–69". Hispania. 54: 624–656. doi:10.2307/337708. ISSN 0018-2133. JSTOR 337708.
  25. ^ Moreno de Alba, José G. (2001). El español en América (in Spanish) (3rd ed.). Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica. p. 232. ISBN 9681663934.