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Emirate of Fujairah

Coordinates: 25°16′N 56°20′E / 25.267°N 56.333°E / 25.267; 56.333
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Emirate of Fujairah
إِمَـارَة ٱلْفُجَيْرَة
Coat of arms of Emirate of Fujairah
Location of Fujairah in the UAE
Location of Fujairah in the UAE
Coordinates: 25°16′N 56°20′E / 25.267°N 56.333°E / 25.267; 56.333
Country United Arab Emirates
2 municipalities[1]
 • TypeIslamic absolute monarchy within a federation
 • RulerSheikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi
 • Crown PrinceSheikh Mohammed bin Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi
 • Emirate1,166 km2 (450 sq mi)
 • Rank5th
 (2009 estimate)
 • Rank6th
 • Metro
152,000[citation needed]
 • TotalUS$ 6.8 billion (2023)
 • Per capitaUS$ 23,500 (2023)
Time zoneUTC+4 (UAE standard time)

The Emirate of Fujairah (Arabic: إِمَـارَة ٱلْفُجَيْرَة Al-Fuǧaira IPA: [al fud͡ʒajra]) is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, the only one of the seven with a coastline solely on the Gulf of Oman and none on the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Fujairah.


Lookout towers of Al Badiyah Mosque, the oldest surviving mosque in the United Arab Emirates

The Emirate of Fujairah, dominated by the Sharqiyin tribe, sits at the mouth of the important trade route, the Wadi Ham (which is guarded by the Sharqiyin Al Bithnah Fort), through the mountains to the interior and the Persian Gulf Coast. Known as the Shamaliyah, the east coast of what is now the UAE was subject to Muscat until 1850, when it was annexed by Al Qasimi of Sharjah, in an agreement made between Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi and the Sultan of Muscat.[3] The Shamaliyah was governed by Al-Qasimi Wali at Kalba although frequently seceded and in 1901 Sheikh Hamad bin Abdullah Al Sharqi, chief of the Sharqiyin, declared independence from Sharjah. This was recognized by a number of the Trucial Sheikhs and also by Muscat, but not the British, who were frequently provoked by the independently minded Ruler.[4] At this time, The Emirate of Fujairah consisted of some 150 houses and 3,000 date palms and its people lived mainly through pearling and date cultivation.[5] Since the absorption of Kalba by Sharjah in 1952, the Shamaliyah is shared by the emirates of Fujairah and Sharjah.[6]

In 1952, the Emirate of Fujairah entered into treaty relations with Britain, becoming the last of the emirates to join the Trucial States. Having withheld this recognition for over fifty years, the British government only granted it because the oil exploration company Petroleum Concessions Limited (PCL) needed to sign a concession with a recognized ruler.[7] On 2 December 1971, The Emirate of Fujairah joined the United Arab Emirates.

Archaeological finds in the Emirate of Fujairah point to a history of human occupation and trading links stretching back at least 4,000 years, with Wadi Suq (2,000 to 1,300 BC) burials located at Bithnah and the Qidfa' Oasis.[8] A third millennium BCE tower was used to construct the Portuguese fort at Bidiyah, identified with the Portuguese 'Libedia', a fortress recorded in de Resende's 1646 map - the fortress itself has been carbon dated to 1450–1670.[9]

The Emirate of Fujairah is also rich in late Islamic fortresses, as well as being home to the oldest mosque in use in the United Arab Emirates, Al Badiyah Mosque, which was built in 1446 of mud and bricks.[10][a] It is similar to other mosques found in Yemen, eastern Oman, and Qatar. Al Badiyah Mosque has four domes (unlike the other similar mosques which have between seven and twelve) and lacks a minaret.


The Emirate of Fujairah covers approximately 1,166 km2 (450 sq mi), or about 1.5% of the area of the UAE, and is the fifth-largest emirate in the UAE.

The weather is seasonal, although it is warm most of the year. The months of December to March are generally the coolest, with daytime temperatures averaging around 25 °C (77 °F) and rarely venturing above 30 °C (86 °F)—with temperatures climbing to over 40 °C (104 °F) degrees in the summer. The winter period also coincides with the rainy season and although by no means guaranteed, this is when the Emirate of Fujairah experiences the bulk of its precipitation. Rainfall is higher than the rest of the UAE, partly because of the effect of the mountains that encircle the Emirate, and partly because the prevailing winds are easterly bringing with them water-laden clouds off the warm Indian Ocean. The variability of the east coast climate is partly due to the presence of the Hajar mountain range. As with other mountainous areas, precipitation is higher, and this allows for a more varied micro-environment in the area. Tourist visitor numbers peak just before the school summer months.[citation needed]

Climate data for Fujairah International Airport (1990-2016)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 24.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.7
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 17.0
Record low °C (°F) 10.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.4
Average relative humidity (%) 62 63 60 51 47 56 68 72 69 59 60 62 61
Source: National Center of Meteorology&Seismology[13]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 32,189—    
1985 43,753+6.33%
1995 76,180+5.70%
2005 125,698+5.14%
2010 163,751+5.43%
2017 236,811+5.41%
Source: Citypopulation[14] [15]

The Emirate of Fujairah had a population of 125,698 at the last census, held in 2005. Its population is around 225,360 inhabitants (in 2016);[16] only the Emirate of Umm al-Quwain has fewer occupants. The 2019 population estimates is 256,256 inhabitants.[17]


The Emirate of Fujairah is an absolute monarchy ruled by its Hakim, Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi.

The Sheikh heads the cabinet of the Emirate of Fujairah, and a few members of respected local families in the emirate make up the advisory committees. The Sheikh must ratify any decisions by the cabinet. After the ratification, such decisions may be enacted into law.[citation needed]



The Emirate of Fujairah's economy is based on subsidies and federal government grants distributed by the government of Abu Dhabi (the seat of power in the UAE). Local industries consist of cement, stone crushing, and mining. A resurgence in the construction activity helped the local industry. There is a flourishing free trade zone,[20] mimicking the success of the Dubai Free Zone Authority[21] which was established around Jebel Ali Port.

Cement Factory in Dibba

The federal government employs the majority of the native, local workforce, with few opening businesses of their own. Many of the locals work in the service sector. The government of the Emirate of Fujairah prohibits foreigners from owning more than 49% of any business. The free zones have flourished, partly due to the relaxation of such prohibition within the zones, as full foreign ownership is allowed there. Shaikh Saleh Al Sharqi, younger brother to the ruler, is widely recognized as the driving force behind the commercialization of the economy.[citation needed]

The Emirate of Fujairah is a minor bunkering port with large scale shipping operations taking place every day. Shipping and ship-related services are thriving businesses in the city. Due to the business-friendly environment and ease of logistic support, ships trading from Persian Gulf anchor here for provisions, bunkers, repair, and technical support, spares, and stores before proceeding on long voyages. The city is also geographically well suited for such ship service-related activities.[citation needed]

The government of The Emirate of Fujairah is a major shareholder in the National Bank of Fujairah, a UAE local bank. Incorporated in 1982, the National Bank of Fujairah (NBF) is active in the areas of corporate and commercial banking, trade finance and treasury. NBF has also expanded portfolio to include personal banking options and Shariah-compliant services. NBF supports industries ranging from oil and shipping to services, manufacturing, construction, education, and healthcare.[citation needed]


Foreigners or visitors are not allowed to buy land. Emirati nationals can purchase land from the government, after proving their nationality. If there is no suitable land available via the official government offices, private purchases can also be made, with the eventual price being determined by the market and the individuals themselves.[citation needed]


The ruler is planning to make changes that will affect the Emirate of Fujairah. Among tourism projects is an $817m resort, Al-Fujairah Paradise, near Dibba Al-Fujairah, on the northern Omani border, next to Le Meridien Al Aqah Beach Resort. The planned development would have around 1,000 five-star villas as well as hotels, but has since been cancelled.[citation needed]

The Sheikh is trying to improve opportunities for the local workforce, by trying to entice businesses to locate in the Emirate of Fujairah and diverting Federal funds to local companies in the form of development projects.[citation needed]

The Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline was opened in 2012.[22][23]

Health care[edit]

Health care is delivered in a mixed public and private system. Locals are treated for free at the federal government hospitals, while foreigners have to pay for medical care. The national government funds the federal hospitals and subsidize health care with petrodollar revenues. There are criticisms that the government is not providing health care sufficiently for those with low income, who have to pay for critical treatment themselves.[citation needed]

The government of the Emirate of Fujairah has built clinics, known locally as "medical houses". These clinics complement and help lighten the load on the main Fujairah Hospital by allowing walk-in appointments and providing ancillary medical services. These clinics have turned out to be a success, visited by the local populace.[24]


There are many government schools in the Emirate of Fujairah, which are mainly for Emirati people, besides some numbers of Arab residents. Aside from government schools, there are also private schools, and due to the majority of the population of the Emirate hailing from the Indian subcontinent, most of the private schools follow the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) syllabus, accredited by the Central Education Board of India.

Fujairah Montessori Nursery is the oldest pre-school in the Emirate of Fujairah.[citation needed] It admits children from the age of two years. It is located in the Al Faseel area. There are several nursery and kindergarten schools in the Emirate of Fujairah. 'Superbaby' in Al Faseel 'Smart kids', 'Mom and Kids' and 'Little Stars' are used by expat families.[citation needed]


A view of Fujairah at night

Travel in and around the Emirate of Fujairah and the surrounding towns of Khor Fakkan, Kalba and Masafi has been made easy by the development of modern highways since independence in 1971. Highways are funded by the federal government directly, and contracts are tendered centrally. This is meant to safeguard the quality and delivery of the contracts and prevent corruption from damaging the construction.[citation needed]

The Emirate of Fujairah has a very limited public transport, with a single bus service operating within the emirate and a service operating to Dubai. Aside from private transport, there are several taxis operated by the government-owned Emirate of Fujairah Transport Corporation (FTC).[25]

The new Sheikh Khalifa Highway linking Dubai and Fujairah was officially inaugurated on Saturday, 4 December 2011, following delays to the originally scheduled opening date of July 2011. It is a road that shortens the distance by 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi). The Fujairah International Airport is near the city, with a large falcon statue at the airport roundabout. However, currently, it only offers commercial service to Abu Dhabi, a domestic destination within the UAE.[citation needed]


LuLu Mall Fujairah opened in 2014. City Centre Fujairah opened in April 2012 with 105 units along with Century Mall near the Fujairah Ports. The construction of the Fujairah Mall was completed in 2016. Fathima Shopping Center in Fujairah is another shopping destination.[citation needed]


The Emirate of Fujairah is connected to other emirates by a 45-kilometre-long (28 mi) highway called Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Highway and links Dubai and Sharjah to Fujairah within a 30 minutes drive. The road begins from the entrance of Fujairah, crossing Al Gazirmi locality, Wadi Sahm, Asfeeni, Mamdooh, Kadra and Shawka Valleys in Ras Al Khaimah, and ends at Maleeha Road in Sharjah, at Hamda area.[26]


The UAE culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam and traditional Arab culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine, and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday.[27] However as of January 2021 it has been changed to Saturday-Sunday to align with the rest of the world and make trading with other countries easy and efficient.[28]

Drinking alcohol is allowed at designated hotels, and as of 2000, at a few bars. Until 1998, gambling in the form of slot machines was allowed in certain hotels, but personal petitions by locals to the Sheikh outlawed the activity. Some players were losing entire monthly wages on the slots, leaving nothing for the upkeep of their families.[citation needed]

Groups of Emirati youths tend to socialize together on the streets and cafés or outside games arcades, cinemas, and mini-malls. It is unusual to see mixed-sex groups due to gender segregation in Emirati society.[citation needed]

On vacations, many Fujairah residents travel to western emirates such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi, for entertainment and shopping purposes. They also visit the Wadis surrounding the emirate on camping and hiking trips. At the same time, other emirates' residents visit the Emirate of Fujairah for relaxation purposes and to get away from the stifling heat of the desert. Watersports such as jet skis, windsurfing, waterskiing and diving are becoming more and more popular amongst both locals and tourists. Professional driving instructors can be found in Le Meridien or in Royal Beach Hotel, where one can obtain an International Driving License, for a fee.[citation needed]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ The remains of a recently excavated mosque in Al Ain in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, near the Sheikh Khalifa Mosque are the oldest known in the country, dating back to the Islamic Golden Age.[11][12]


  1. ^ http://www.megf.org/2014/con_proceedings/Pre%20Conf.-Eng.%20Abdulla%20Al%20Khaddeim,Fujairah%20Municipality%20GIS%20Initiatives_Feb_2014.pdf Archived 10 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine GIS Initiatives for The Strategic Development of The Emirate of Fujayrah
  2. ^ "TelluBase—UAE Fact Sheet (Tellusant Public Service Series)" (PDF). Tellusant. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  3. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2005). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates: a society in transition. London: Motivate. p. 82. ISBN 1860631673. OCLC 64689681.
  4. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. pp. 92–94. ISBN 0582277280.
  5. ^ Lorimer, John (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Vol II. British Government, Bombay. p. 555.
  6. ^ British India Office (1953). 'Historical Summary of Events in the Persian Gulf Shaikhdoms and the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, 1928–1953. p. 148. IOR/R/15/1/731(1). Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2023 – via Qatar National Library.
  7. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. p. 296. ISBN 0582277280.
  8. ^ United Arab Emirates : a new perspective. Abed, Ibrahim., Hellyer, Peter. London: Trident Press. 2001. pp. 45–6. ISBN 1900724472. OCLC 47140175.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ United Arab Emirates : a new perspective. Abed, Ibrahim., Hellyer, Peter. London: Trident Press. 2001. p. 92. ISBN 1900724472. OCLC 47140175.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ Eugene Harnan (21 August 2011). "Oldest UAE mosque holds onto its secrets". Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Remains of 1,000-year-old mosque reveal a rich past". The National. Emirates 24/7. 10 September 2018. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  12. ^ Power, Timothy (13 September 2018). "How a 1,000-year-old mosque in Al Ain anchors the UAE in human history". The National. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Climate Yearly Period (Data Table)". Ministry of Presidential Affairs. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  14. ^ "UAE: Emirates". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  15. ^ "Fujairah - the Official Portal of the UAE Government". Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  16. ^ "United Arab Emirates: Emirates & Major Cities – Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Fujairah - The Official Portal of the UAE Government". u.ae. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  18. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2005). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates : a society in transition. London: Motivate. p. 73. ISBN 1860631673. OCLC 64689681.
  19. ^ Said., Zahlan, Rosemarie (2016). The Origins of the United Arab Emirates : a Political and Social History of the Trucial States. Taylor and Francis. p. 239. ISBN 9781317244653. OCLC 945874284.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ "Fujairah Freezone". Archived from the original on 13 May 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2006.
  21. ^ "Free Zone Dubai, UAE - Jebel Ali Free Zone (Jafza)". Jafza. Archived from the original on 18 December 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2006.
  22. ^ Shehab Al Makahle (21 June 2012). "Habshan-Fujairah pipeline starts pumping crude oil". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  23. ^ Osgood, Patrick (15 July 2012). "Abu Dhabi – Fujairah crude pipeline inaugurated". Arabian Oil & Gas. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Fujairah Health Insurance". www.uae-medical-insurance.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  25. ^ Haza, Ruba (14 September 2014). "Fujairah residents call for better public transport". The National. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  26. ^ "Mansour bin Zayed opens new Dubai - Fujairah highway". Khaleej Times. 3 December 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  27. ^ Jonathan Sheikh-Miller. "UAE Weekend Switchover". AMEinfo. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  28. ^ "UAE to move weekend to Saturday and Sunday to align with global markets". Pinsent Masons. 28 August 2023. Retrieved 28 August 2023.

External links[edit]